Schnell B, Weir PT, Roth E, Fairhall AL, Dickinson MH (2014). Cellular mechanisms for integral feedback in visually guided behavior. PNAS 111(15), 5700-5705.
Calcium activity in HS cell terminals during flight (from our Vimeo channel).
A fly displays a prolonged turning response during and after the presentation of a wide-field drifting grating stimulus, indicating the presence of an integration step in the flight control system. Simultaneously aquired GCaMP6f responses in visual interneurons follow a similar time course. Maximal z projection of an anatomical stack of the same fly is shown for reference. This video plays back at 1/4 actual speed.